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Full text of "After Trotsky what next? : an address delivered Oct. 13, 1940, at the Labor Temple, New York"

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HARRY WATON 

Author of die Philosophy of Marx, etc 



An Address Delivered Oct 13, 1940 

AT THE LABOR TEMPLE, NEW YORK 



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^Published by 
(tammtttee for tlfp i*rps?niafiiitt of tije Jrtns 
381 Van Siclen Avenue, BbookiStc, N. Y, 



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After Trotsky, What Next? 



1* / Time, 1B abeolute, and' of the* absolute we can form no idea. For thia reason 
we/can form no idea of time itaelf . We can, however, form an idea of the duration 
t .of time by the events that take place. T7e form an idea of a day by the rotation of 

I . the earth on its axis; we form an idea of a year by the revolution which the earth 
<! y makes around, the dun; and eo in all cases we measure the intervals of time by thc 

. tv events that take olace. The more events take place within an interval of time the 

j ") ' 1 - lS" ger that . iB IfW a p earo -* u8 * A ^ crow fK d vith events appears to us longer 
J -thp an uneventful week. We live now in.a time! in which more significant events 

take place withinjone day than took place in the past within one year, and- there- 
fore a day seems to us longer than in the, pest| a year appeared.. Cn -August 20, ■ 1W 
/.: '*• J^^sj^deijed,!* a primitive, and. eavagei. manner. Only 53* days passed since * 

then; yet, because every one of these days was crowded with great historic events, 
-:• ' the murder of Trotsky appears to us to be =eo far removed from the present asvthr 

"■ l .«f J^Ii, "^ t nC l hi ' t0ry ifi &it11 "g^ficantlfor us; but with relation to the 
/ events that, take palace now the events of ancient history appear -no longer elgnii 

I . ,cant. 53 days ago' the murder of Trotzky was a very significant event, tut nov 

" . *?*"■ "f longer isignif leant-. Now,- if the murder of Trotiky was an isolat 
at this time it would be of Jjittle- significance 'to us, and it would not bo 
as a subject for. a lecture now. But the jmurderof Trotzky is only a phase of 
event the* has taken place for many years in the past, is still taking place 
I will continue to take place, for many years to come. Therefore, in .peaking of 

murder of Trot 2 ky, I .shall ipeak of an event that is of vital aignifiwd to us 



HOW, 

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Stalxn murdered Trotzky. Thus Stalin, again and for a wl 
quenchless thirst for revenge; and thus, also, Stalin became , oiuta 

No longer will Trot rky challenge Stalin's supremacy or rob him 
irotzky is dead, what is next? Long, ago I, answered thia question, twenty 

{ ?hoT S q + ? *l**** ^ 8inCS tl?6n ? re P eated the statement thousands 

Rn^ni\ * 9 R"^aan revolutionary leaders would be destroyed. In a lecture on the 
{ ™ T J EE "' Wh \ C u T Mi ™V ***** "I. 1930 - ten. years and seven months 
, T} ago- I stated, among others, the following* Of all the Bolshevik leaders only Sta- 

lin was left, who is yet in power; fbut Stalin will- not long remain in power. In 
the near future, Stalin will either be deposed, or he will be assassinated, or, if 
he as favored by, Destiny, like l^nin he will die a natural death, tthen Stalin is 

,vin V ^v« r r h t ^L f age ' there r 11 be a fi * rce ft^BElB tor power," 'which 
Will give rase to a frightful civil war Communists will -fight against communists: 
socialists, anarchists and other revolutionaries will fight against communists; 
reactionaries will fight against revolutionaries; religious Will fight against at r- 

E^ni25?.iT™f" V-ll fight again9t t he P™l e tariat; and the whole Russian peop- 
le wiii^ fight against the present regime. The enemies of communism will find'the 

SlteSlS i?S° r ? Untt J t0 ^ ade Ru8Bla *' PrlBBta ' ^We Capitalists, socialists 
anarchist^, liberals and pacifists will| join the armies and the navies of the cap* 

llf.l m° U S "?? if a ?° ly War agalnst Ruflsia ' W»Mia-'will become the world Armag- 
t^r i J- *l ! °T i" rivar9 ' ndllibhB of Russians will be killed, and Russia 
»Jn k° StS^S 1 *- errlblfl r ^ction will set in, the international proletariat 
will be discouraged, and the revolutionary movement will bo retired from history. 
^IntSE *° experiB5ent w ^_come to an end, and a high social ideal will 

vL + K Th ° 'J* 11 """ 011 °f * hia Prophecy 4s the answer to the question what is next? 

iSi- rtT k 1 * t ik l and the oth€ l r evolutionary leaders is not the real tra- 

gedy, first, because he who takes up the sword must be prepared to perish 1 by the 

5 lit ffi? "T*' ^ J f ldier ° n thS tet f le-fiel d rmust be'prepared to be 
' 1/ *; be «P<>cted is not dinghy, llext, when Trotzky and thrf other 
revolutionary leaders were in power, they acted like Stalin. Finally,, if .by cha* 



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»urdere1 thTt^i^r ^r'lt^^n^r: r^^H 10 ^ l -««**» 

« «,.« "r"" 00 ' f 110 so * instead of the revolutionary movement of *'^e ml>*;-^+ 
we have the reactionary movement of the fascists- and i: in«+™* I I ? Fruie " ariat ' 

»nH £„♦ a* 8 ^ ^volution betrayed, who can be trusted? Seept"ci 
"oiflereW f 1 * 11 *' -"■*"-*."*■ «U hop,. Scept*I, tt „£*£ 
indifference i. the mother of chaos and darknesa. If we i ook ? c - 
diacourageas, and, if we- look, to the future, we are frightened 
the past, we cannot regain where we-are, and ye t there i«rc- : 

SM wnIch h t e h fUt ^- ^V thS 8itUati " that "-'«r a':; 
enta, of -which the murder of Trotiky is only a phase, present's --'. 

££/££ x^s?" 1 ' aspect ^ a ^ -^" ; 

tSfr that iS n f ° f a " t,:uEsle betwe ' SD hunan PassionsJM 

of Le^Lthf,. tl™ re ' olut «n«y leaders, like leaders gen'sV 
aod thorcfifth^ 63 ! T" ™ bltiou «». ««h trtrtng to becoL i 

£b«iC £st be y in°onrCtn:r.r™v e V en ^V™ " !Wwt ' d «' 

ffluit destroy what tLv hpH!^! % &■ *!* TO " rt destroy one another, and they 

is taking ^S^^^.'S^-^^^J^J^W-^" °^* . 
passiono and aobitio'ns of ieadere Hietorv ™v«=^ 'T " it *•*•"*»■«■ °y **« 

they had a rights ^^ ^ "-^ 9™"- *>»» <*>^° tCS only 
policies ofloviat R^i^r P ! M *"""'' "* 0nly the)r wer « «"»!"*«* to direct the 
ectiomries ?™ii n ~/r S.*™"* **• ■*»«»"•• regarded the Trottkyites as re- 
Therertre the S.M. ??" t8 '/ n f ieS . of the ""^ •!"• »*> &>«* Bueeiaf 
destroy the LS of t\ 9T t J ha \ they h8d ° riEht ' Bnd « *■ th8i »- Ml to 

y xney nan alright to be in supreme power, and that only they were coanpet- 

















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ent and trustworthy to direct the policies of Soviet Russia.' Therefore the Trotsky- 
I believed that they had a right, and'it waa their duty, to remove and to des- 
troy the Stalmites. Thua we see that the Stalinites and the Trotzkyites took of 
, 4 history the- same naive and superstitious view that the moat ordinary men take This 

-■nevter understdod itanHmn., t*> +.h«>« ...j.J^^.j u ^ 1^. _ , % . '*. _ * 



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that is independent of the will and the consciousness of man. larx taught that, in 
considering a social trans format ion, we must disregard what men think of this tran 1 - 
S!T~S W ^u th n y ^ ink ° f **»«■•!▼•■ a « d M one another. Hence, to understand 
T*£*!2K5 *t L f^ r *7°* utloa we muBt disregard what the Stalinites and the 
Trot*kyites thought of themselves and of one another j they were only the blind ^ 

2 nut t^ n r tt °i h i stor y- Hiat °^ »*• **• Qusaian revolution/history brought 

S.t« ^T*' J h + \ TroUkye and the Staiin8 *• P«*on« the works of the rlvolutior 
ifZl 1 *l + ° ye ? tb -* B to e et £ sr with the revolution, and by all this history accom- 
plished a historic purpose. jfeut the Stalinites, and the TroUkyites never understood 

nev^uL "J 6 ^ 1 ^ 10 ? ^ ^ hi3t ° ry WaS a *Wi*hing ^ it. ttoree still^hey 
never understood fcarxien,. and they never were Marxists. They were all through de- 
ceived. Hence their destruction is no tragedy. And since history made the Russian 
tTd^T* *?;? « e8t r° yed "•■*"•«■ « *** performed its historic function, 
!i ?±~ll2 it* 4 fuf 8iSn revolution ™* ««* ^ tragedy. And, since there was 
no tragedy, there is nothing which re should regret, and there is nothing which we 
should fear Therefore it is not for us to judge and condemn, it is for us W 
derstand. what did history intend to accomplish by the Russian revolution? This 

;«H?V hirtoric aspect of what appears to be the tragedy of the Russian 

revolution. 

hLt O r,^L?^ t0 I i !w A ! P !!^ The RU3Sian revolutionaries, believing that men make 
history, believed that they could make the Russian revolution, and that they could 
determine the historic function and course of that revolution. The Russian revolu- 

rivS?u«!!r 8 i 1 ** uw° ry ° f ^ ™™l«ti™ t and yet never perceived that a 

revolution i. made by history, and not by men; and that a revolution has a historic 
function »d course that are independent of the will and the consciousness of men. 
karx regarded the French revolution as the moat perfect type of revolutions. Let 
+!'* ^eref ore, examine the French revolution. The French revolutionariee believed 
that th^ function of the French revolution waa to establish liberty, equality and 

fTtoS 1 -^ + § a* ? "*£"!.•* hi<rt f p *" the functio * of the French'revolution was, 
U ? ' 8 ! r ° y Feudali9 ®> "d to clear the terrain for modem capitalist 

And now let us consider the course of .the French revolution. Prior to 17 39 France 
was feudalists and monarchic. A crisis precipitated the revolution. The first re- 
volutionary wave brought to the fore the Constitutionalists. The second wave brou- 
ght to the fore the Girondists, who guillotined the Constitutionalists/- r The third 
wave Drought to the fore the Jacobins, who guillotined the Girondists. Hn 1793 the 
revolution reaches its highest crest. Great political and economic changes were in* 
augurated. Then the revolution began to subside, and the process was reversed., The 
Jacobins were overthrown and guillotined by the Girondists, then the Girondist 
•vere overthrown and guillotined by the Constitutionalists. Then the Conatitutiona- 
the Whn 7 erthrown + and daetroyed by Hapoleon. In 1B15, Happleon was overthrow, 
the Bourbons were restored, the monarchy was reestabliohed, reaction settled down, 
anU the revolution came to an end. This was the history of all past revolutions, 
and this also was, is and will be the hiatory of the Russian revolution. Let us 
see the perfect parallel between the French revolution and the Russian revolution. 

ti„ n ™!w" ia " re r° lu *f°»ri« believed that the historic function of the Ru- 
^ KftS^rTS *£ e ^ abli8h socialism. V?e shall presently see that the hi B - 
t^Lh^r .! h f. Hu8P i lul revoluti °« ™ to destroy private capitalism and es- 
tablish state capitalism. For the present, let us consider the course of the Russ- 
ian revolution: it wae exactly like the course 'of the French revolution. Prior to 

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lit S™^/ <nr °J2i?'J U,,Bl ' 1 "*■ f * udalisti * «■* «rchl«. A criais precipitated ' 
tfae revolut^fiiu-^-firet revolutionary wave brought to the fore the Lvof • and the 

th "enshev'i^r^H^r'f 1 ^ 8 ' ^ »*** **** >™^° the fore the SSb^ and 
tutioSiate f Z* th ^ondiats of the **^ revolution, who retired the CoLS- 
tnl J^itl t f°i !! age ° f fcifct0| Tr.- The third wav* brought to the fore the Len- 
J InliT. lit tt^! ' th 5 JacoMn * s of [** *«*"*» revolution, who retired the Gir- 

■ S At^Lr VT h ! lt9 ^^ crefft * a « d th<J 'solution began to sub? 

giiliotLe^ Intil Xl^ J JJ" ° n J ** l V Bo ^ h -^ l^ders after another was 
■ power lu^hv^inff/ the most reactionary of the Boleheviki remined in 
hi^n™ ♦ y t gl S ° f eVCDts wen Stalin will be retired from the stage of 

history, to make room for still more reactionary leader! This will continue until 

! ory* ^eTwouirL' 8 '"^fll U *** *» B * i& " "-lutioSriee had undera^ hiet- ' 
SJlKlI SSrVT 1 ^"V 1 ™ » bitter di^ppolntmenta, Th«n they would be 
"„ +LZ\ll ay t ^ elr ^!* orit ™ le8 » **<* ™>uld retire from the etage of hietory 
once they had performed their roles. But becauee they naively believed that th«v 

""time Z^l 1° *$?' &I H ^ th6y " Uld *V on tL^isTori "atagf all 
lit + '., ! ■uperstition they had to pay and did pay with their lives Fata 

v«U Ea'tE^a" eTolutio " °- nc ^ 9tin / »f its on, which are independent of tne 
illLT** % ? "" 8nesq of -» en : ""* <»» hi°=elf ha 8 neither a nature or a con- 
sciousness „f evolution nor a, destiny of hia own. me Bill, the consciousness th, 
course of evolution and the daatiny of ma^ind are all deterged by the nature 

;=e1t7^^^ * 

law of dialectics, capitaliam »ai negate itaelf and make room for socialist tta™ ^< 
tne baais of socialism communism will riae. Thus co,™^™ inevitable K^t?. ' 

o°ce VT*?" a f™ s "-W •»» """ciopsnese^f me" It foUovs^nat 
. o ; ,oe the mode of production brings out socialism.men will beeo»i soci^irts- and' 

^L V v ?° cons '=iO''sness of <sen and the mode of production there is a 

f°r!LT' ltt r' ! :£. w^V"*™™ l. dete™inad by the^ode of production 

^r^d 8 - * h " "«*«rt*"t ""caption of history, the mode of production iaihc 
^„ ^l ? C WUti tna iD P re «i<"> on the wax corraeponda wi?h the sell A 

. =f production, and human nature Cu?^ ^'.^ lZ?7Zr a tr^h S , ^2 B 

'oc e ialirt an i relr0 r UU,> r rieS t0 ° k " f0 ^antad that with thelnauguraUon o^ 
Ir'r- 1 J P^ouction, even if that plan ia inaugurated by force; the will 

r^sof tT BC T"t" ° f * he RuB0l8n pe °P le " n corfespondin B ly y change Por this 
tute «d1t a « o? ™T^ r ™ 1 »i 1 »«-rt" «d not concern themselve. foj the »- 
tw ^1 g , « vol « tl o n of the Russian people. At numerous occasions I showed 

L . '", M conc « rned only about thin to show that this if a one-aided 

c: d v:rt d h?r::.crpaid f ^zi^i^r? «- *— ^-s-^-.'s^Sr. 

orriaetiomlaaf LlSi" "f ^^ haTe 1 f or « e "sumption that/while the mode of 



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^n?"^^ »r U1 ' Se f eT0luti0n « d destiny v^MoM by the »ode of product- 
evolution and dotting that are independent of the will «nrt%L ■ OTB ° f 

the external world -and chane-i™ ^+ u„ L *C 17 a man » b ? acting on 

This IB true hut whlT- 6 ? g i 1 2 thb 8ame time <*««&■« hie own nature. 

will dcstrov th S S ". ^ inf S ltt ■"«* and suffering, and which struggle 

mode of production there i* ■ !«!„ I a ™ flP 1S this ' Eet * een ■»» *** tJ ie 

ultaneous.ltlrLcc:; ive. \S ^^S^at^'S^S^^I *' "* '*~ 
ards the centre- and Zhi* +v,- P ro 6 r ?« begins at the periphery and moves tow 

centre oackto the p^riSlerv To ^Z " **'*"• M fUrther pr °^" ** f™ the 
.:vich is t h . external Cr ^lld!*IiI n "^b^S'^^^nnd^ 61 " ™ ^ *?****> . 
terial world Bv rhfeniHnr-" =^ « ^sr^oegin to change and improve the external ma- 

gins to- ^ng^nato 8 ^t ST^I^^rSt?*"* 1 T^' " *"> b "' 
rtvnt of tht. ry+,™i „j 1 1 f nature. Eut between the change and improve- 

,,tu r f t*erc SyT aTinW^r AT" 1 "? ^^ a " d ^"oLnt ofZT . 
readv .rrar-Hf.! r 1 thousands of years. The notorial VO rld is al- 

viil bePre-red for In T* *". " WU1 take "*"* "Juries bsfore huaan natura 

couL ss?abUsh so la » "u £* ?Z RUS " ia ? '"I"*!-'!- boli„ e d that they 
, r Bat " A1 sn socialism in backward Russia richt now. This wan n f»+«i m4=+ot- 

«uinar s and thus they would MtabliS «r^i J'5 ln Q ° ^^""^ and rational 

ci^lism can be established ™d ^itJ !i a « 8B ' AnA We BMat bcar in Bind this; B0 ~ 
is their historic ?Sotion But t^ J* ?f taW J" h * d ^ * *»• irking class: this 
tfcia historic f rt^ S , !. wrking class is not yet prepared to perform 
nger exisfand social is* 1JVJ **"" *£? ■»«"*» ^vate capitalism can noTo- 

class should have per £La P ?he state lull ** ^ *?* fUnCti °° Whlc M* «rki»w 
the processee and th"?™ c « S %HS ^ + T ^ in hand the laRd -^s rceans, 

accordance with a naMA^T? i production and use them in an organized manner in 
state also 1™^ - PlWU **"> ** ldditi » to ^ political F ow e r f the 

inevitable. This is wlJft ll m In! ! f f 8cl6m ' Thu8 ^te capitalism and fascism are 



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tr! w!f e ^P"*! 1 " 1 ' « d ^scism, and this the. revolution accomplished. Therefor, 
wire etSLtin^ ^^'T' tha **»"««* the sL'Uns belief that 
i?, n^L^ " g , f ClallSBl " e *i'«*y *"* ^t Karx taught ue, namely that 

.onsxderiisg a social transformation, we must disregard what men thin^of^the • 

" o^VhIm, + ? J n I H&Ver underat <>od -*hat history made them doj they were> 

ends*f SviLt r ^,l-f 9Ct ; J? ? J? * he 5t=lin-Kitl 9 r Paei, the c^^, the fri- 
St ^s Zfw + 3 "Vi? fell0 »- t ™yll«r» accepted and justified everything ' 
,-Uiat oas done by the revolutionaries in Soviet Rueeia: thev accented and ini+Yf??,* 

tnat th&y do not know *hat they are talking About. pr^enxiy see 

most ^iff^nf * *£ J ^u f I th& m6ana? Thi8liB on * of the i"«rt t . profoundestLd 
stored on thfs oroh r 8 - 5 r^ ^^ th « ul *-*ity. Profound thinkers' be- 
pSSL Itle Ks^w^ th + ° Ueht ,' and i yet tHey thuBfar fail * d *° B-lve 1 the 
ever be the IL L^f M to " lT * ***■ P^blem. An aim implies means.fwhat- 
ever oe the aim* we must use appropriate means to realize that aim Su™ R #, T LrH- " 

v and to l£e t^ Sea ' h ? SEe e lally CaS6S Shieh involT8 •««*l«y,- humanity, juetice? 
' ^eanE' It is'cl~r P *^ ea -^ C K ,, " iSeTer ™°" "«"«"• *•• «» aim J"*ify the 
SfjLJl ! ^T ' lf the aia ltaelf iE TW»ml, inhuaao, unjust, and the li- 

™»»™.h ^ f • !^ : a " Mt h9re «>»"'»«» «W such ain»i we are here 
concerned about right aics, aine that are moral, humne, juet, and the like rt ie 

' U vet ntVro^« U£ T "!*"*«>*«* means of the aace nature? ^e £ there 

realized bv *-£'„?♦£ " ""^ ' " a n ° bU '. hunane - ^ uat * nd «"* »*» ««ad be 

,-uSne Hunt and idLl + U "' the ° *" SOlutioi, ^ oul11 be tnisi u " ««~i. 

t^rS a ?f4., a i t ?Lt *<»i »eana to realise a moral, huaane, juet end ideal aim. But 
the difficulty arioee from this. 7*atever be the aim, and may it be ever eo moral,- 




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humane, just and ideal, it can be realized only bv: uei^g means of a contrary nature ^ 
It is this which raises the question: Does the aim justify the means? Here, again"," 
a still greater difficulty arises. If a. moral, r humane, just and ideal aim could be " 
realized by means of a contrary nature, even then the aim would justify the means. 
But /the difficulty arises from this* thus far no aim was realised. It is this that 
raised the problem: &>es the aim ju/tify th,e means? Ken of thought came to the con- ' 
elusion that a moral, humane, jusj/and ideal aim canAot be realized by means of a 
contrary nature. V& can no« realize why this problem Remained unsolved. Indeed, it 
is a very difficult problem. Yet, we shall endeavor to solve it, 

12. Let us begin with the Russian revolution. For centuries the HuBsian people 
were oppressed, exploited and degraded by tjyrants, oppressors and exploiters. To 
free the Russian people from the tyrante, oppressors and exploiters was unquestion- 
ably a moral, humane, just and7ideal aim. But how could this aim be realized? Thic 
aim could be realized only by a revolution. If a revolution is to be successful , : I 
tne ground for it must first be prepared, and this dan be prepared only by a revo- 
lutionary movement. Mow, in Czarist Russia a revolutionary movement could be carr- 
ied on only in an illegal and immoral manner. The revolutionaries had to lie, to 
deceive, to rob and even to kill. ^ien the ground for the revolution was prepared, 
the revolution itself came. If the reactionaries within Russia and outside of Ru- 
ssia would permit the revolution to perform its historic function, then the revolu- 
tion would have been peaceful, moral, humane and just. But the reactionaries were 
determined to destroy the revolutionaries and the revolution, and for this purpose 
they used immoral, inhuman, unjust and sadistic means. What were the revolutionar- 
ies to do? If they refrained from using similar means to fight for the revolution - 
and the Russian people, the revolution .would fail, and the Russian people would 
remain under the old tyrants, oppressors and exploiters. To acquiesce in this, the 
revolutionaries would have committed the greatest crime against«the Russian people. 
Hence, the revolutionaries were right and justified in using any means to overcome 
the enemies of the revolution and the people* Thus, to realize a moral, humane, 
just and ideal aim, the revolutionaries were compelled to use means of a contrary 
nature. Did the aim justify the means? Ifhat was true of the Russian revolution was 
equally true of all revolutions; aid what was true of revolutions was equally true 
of ail human endeavors to realize a radical and noble aim. Now, if indeed the Ru- 
ssian revolution realized socialism - which was the aim of the revolutionaries - 
the auo would justify the means.- But, as we already saw, the Russian revolution did 
not and could not realize socialism. This being so, did the aim of the revolution- 
aries justify the means they used to realize the aim? 

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13. In the face of these facts^ naive and sentimental idealists came to the 
conclusion that a. noble aim can justify only noble means. These idealists maintain 
t.jat the reason why until now no aim was realized was because men used immoral, in- 
human and unjust m&ans to realize their aims. But since, as we saw, to realize a 
noble, moral, humane, just and ideal aim we must use means of a contrary nature, 
these idealists came to the conclusion: resist not evil. Refuse to resist evil, and 
evil will die of itself. This brings to the fore a new aspect of the problem. VTe 
siall not lose oureelves in abstraction nor drown in the infinite facts of past 
history; but we will test this principle in- a very concrete way. These idealists 
rave a task right before them. The nazis are determined to conquer the whole earth, 
and to reduce the rest of the human race to a state of slavery, to serve the sup- 
erior nazi race. What will these idealists advise the real/of mankind to do, what 
will these idealists do themselves? Hie Rhodus. hie salts ! Suppose these idealists 
and the rest of mankind do not resiet the* nazis, then the nazie will realize their 
aims the rest of the human race will be enslaved, degraded and dehumanized. This 
means that the rest of mankind, their children, grandchildren, and all their des- 
cendants to the end of time will become and remain mere cattle used by the superior 
nazi race solely for their purposes, just as we use cattle now. Can we conceive a 
great, more heinous and more sadistic crime than the one which these idealists pro- 
pose to commit and which they Y/ould advise the rest of mankind to commit? Bear this 

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in mind. It is a great crime to kill a man, but ±t\a an infinitely greater crime 
to convert a man into a beast. And this is Exactly w>*ft the nazi superior race pro- 
poses to do/ with the rest of mankind. It ia told that*Tolsto y ; when he became in- 
fatuated with the doctrine of non-resistance, delivered a lecture on this^BUbject. 
'i t I lecture, he was asked this question: suppose that on coming home he found 

• Sfi ^ 8e 3urrounded b * ca^ioalfl, wno vers about to take his wife and children, 
kill them, and make of their bodies a feast for themselves- what would he do? Tol- 
stoy answered^ he would nQt resist. This ia absolut 
to let cannibals kill his wife and children and not . 

Reason dictates that self-preservation is the highe rt virtue, from which flow all 
other virtues. Self-preservation means also preservation f ana's wife, children 
and fellowmen. Reason will dictate that r if one's w.fe and children are in danger, 
that he should sacrifice his own life to savn hi* «r f« an * h*. A t,n^ flH o - 



own life to save his w.fe and his children. Reason 



one's follow men. Thus this ap- 
one ' s wife and children turns 



will also dictate similar sacrifice for the sake of 
parent idealism that would permit cannibals to kill 

out to be the most insane and the most sadistic crimej it is'an absolut 1°^^- 
mitigated self ishness- and cowardice. Suppose we con lider another ease. Suppose a 
serpent attacks a man. The situation is such that either the serpent will kill the 
aan, or the mac should kill the serpent. That would these idealists advise the man 
•to do, would they advise him not to resist evil? The serpent is a beast, while man' 
10 a rational andj superior being. Reason will dictate that we should, concern our- 
selves far more about a man than about a serpent. Does not this apply to it he nazis? 
^re they not beasts? What distinguishesman from the beast? It is reason, humanity" 
, jus-ice, and the like. The nazis repudiated reason, they trample under foot human-, 

ity, morality, justice, and the like, and in the most brazen-faced manner extol 
brutality, cruelty, inhumanity and sadismj while the rest of mankind endeavor to 
fcoia on to reason, strive to become moral, hun» n ^ just a „d the likej aro not the 
razis serpents in comparison with the rest of mankind? Since the nazis are deter- ' 
mined to destroy the rest of mankind, the latter have the right, and it is their 
2+ i to u destro > r the razis * But th e nazis can be destroyed, not by non-resistance, 
bu* by the use of effective means. Does not the aim justify the means? 

14, Let us look at the matter in its broadest aspect. Usui started out as a 

ceaa^, but he was predestined to rise above the beast and to become a rational and 
numane person. To accomplish this man had to transcend the beast that he was and 
remained. First, he had to rise above the beast and become a savage; then he had to 
Fist, abovo the savage and become a barbarian? then he had to rise above the barbar 
ian and become a civilized person. And even this is not yet his goal? man will ha" 
to rise above the civilized and become a morally autonomous person, a euperman. Bu 
m accomplishinc *H this, mankind had to destroy themselves as they were. Through- 
out the past, backward humanity struggled against all progress, against any change 
and improvement, and against their own destiny. What was to be done? The only cou- 
rse that was open was to use force: the savages had to destroy the beasts; the 
barbarians had to destroy the savages j the civilized had to destroy the barbarians 
. and the supermen will have to destroy the civilized. This will continue until man-' 
{ kind attain to their destiny, when they will all become rational and morally auto- 
nomous. Since this is the destiny of mankind, this is the highest, noblest and su- 
blimest aims and yet this aim could be realized only by the use of means of a con- 

^ ?f ture : *** are wiser ±n thfiir conduct than they are in their philosophy; for' 
while tnrough their philoeophy speaks only their immature mind, through their con- 
duct speaks life itself. Throughout the past, in their conduct mankind acted ra- 
tionally and as the eternal conditions of existence dictated? only in their philo- 
sophy they lost "Sheaselves^ in abstractions and irrationalities. There is yet a 
> deeper aspect of the problem which we must consider. 

15- EListencI rests on the eternal and infinite law of equivalents. For what- 

ever we get fromjexistence we must pay an equivalent, and this equivalent we must 
pay in coins of work, struggle and suffering. Me must work for the means of life, 
we must struggle for the attainment of knowledge and undemanding, and wo tnuet 

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sufferfor spiritual excellence. Between conduct and consequences there is an erg- 
EaLSf ""^"J 1 "* 1 * relationship; but between conduct .and consequences theVela- 
tionship i, dialectical! conduct changes into consequence* of an opposite nature. 
This arises from the very law of equivalents. Tie must have pain to have pleasure 

£Lor£ W t0 'V £ y l "* " —* Buffer t0 4 e oappSLs; and"e P ^u B ; 
laaoral. isfcumn and unjust means to realiie a ssoral* humane and just aim. It is 
not a question of the means, it is a question of the aim, because the aim justifies 
■ the means. Take the case ef an individual' criminal. Supposs that a criminal til lH 
£rt £2£? JTf, '""^ !"' aati - BO ««l 'rime: lT.mlf- P r.. Urt kti« .^Sy* 
«en oav lilht ? " agalnrt 'rituals. Now, a criminal does not conoit ourder in 

■ co~rf L J* ' <" he Y e JV mat ° f pe ° plS! h9 caaaLts hia cri " s secretly, and he 

• ^"f'." P + " ^V* that he 8hould not De detected. How can society ta-inHhe 
Ti^Tmtd^t" 1 ^ 7 ■ hy J" UetiVt WOrt ' ** detective work means lying? decei- 
trifd Ta %L ; **S° W *" cri »i^ " apprehended, he -is imprisoned, he is 

• cietv tTl™f ^! elth ^ *° "'Prisonment or deaths are not all these acts of so- 
ST-a^v ral '^ nfcunan and uoJus " ** *•* ««l-ty ssist coendt these acta, for it 
•sIm. *£ £T 8 " ' * !! ? rea " «ontimental idealists who hold society reapon- 

" £?',, " ^fT 6 c0 ™ itted * individuals, but, in turn, it must be askance 

■ ?h. charac1erff^H reSP H°- B -? Ie / 0r , the "^ C< ^ iUd * ™W »* detenslnee 
taints tw l t,w . 1 » d *«*"l •"« the character of society? Some thinkers main- 
^ints^ t£" C ^ r " eter f th ! *»J»i*«X is determined by society, other thinkers 
SSSS rfL , Cna f! C ! e f. " f SOelety is "^erained by the individuals composing 
ecSallv' clear lET. ^ th6 individuai «"™t rise above society, but iHt not • 

■JKr^SriV k* 001 !** "r 0t ri3e abovo the individuals? Who, then, determines 
mines £T£ \ r^Z"- *!"* " "** the "»* aBa * er: ne " h «r soeirty deter- 
of socletv^h tl * ♦ ' ?*W*-1. ~r the individuals determine the character 
ll tltlll'- k *? " det ! rmned *y history. Since both are determined by history, 
tn- Sir f ! r * the CaUBe " ttat detfl r»ine the individual to coSdt crimes, ' 

tv~£T CaU " 8 deteraine W- 4 -*' «» P"«i* the criminal. What shall bedone wi?h' 
tyrants oppressors and exploiters? They are erl^Mir3»d anti.soeidls they are a 

• STElf d.?!n« *I ^ I? the BMDberfl ° f " Ciet3r - So64<!t y «* tne — «• of society, 
in self-defense ana self-preservation, nust remove the tyrants, oppressor, and ex- 
ploiter,; but this can be done only by acts that are isJral, USLn and unjust? 

^ ! +^* * = ■ al ° J uat4 " 88 tne »o»ne. But this brings to the fore the fo- 

llowing question Since th, aim justifies the means, then all aiaa should have been 
realised; and yet we know that thus far no aim .as reality, how can this be expl! 

SUm^aSi! " 6S "? / he dlffieult l' that » de " possible to solve the pro- 
bl™ before us, namely: does the aim justify the means? We shall presently 89 , 

dhtinctian^t^r 1 ^ th - 5 q " e ! tion in itB dee P est "P«ct f we ftust clearly draw a 

aiatinction between the aim of history and the aims of Beiu ^h en we do thi we at 

ory took In ha*d a beast, and m the course of time mde of him in accession a sa- 
^S» f ; *™»«. a ^vili.ed man, and now nakes of him a auperman. And history 
!Ifi » Purposes of realizing its ai^ means that were immoral, inhuman and 
^nf ^t 11 ",: C ° nCernlng . hi3t0ry We my ^ ftb«lut«lyi the aim justifies the 
rtSJ; J^i.^" 1 * 6 T! S eon ^ d *' the *i=* of men, we perceive that men never 
realized their aims. And the question arises: why did not men realize their aims? 

^?^T er X v' !! their aima dld aot - coincide with the aim of history, and 

vet i3I»S ^ cauB % th + ua far ™» did w*t understand history. Until now mankind were 
tSt I. SUv-t. ?v *S! 8 C !° nCt taTe a COrrect and ad ^^te idea of the life^task 
fS tt! ! ? ^\ I ent8 and teache " ^^ ^re the infants to their training 

old John*! 1r T ^^ 9ka ° f life With ™ ic - 8 ° n « arld ? la ^ ^"1. five yelr 
old jotam, „jjd. to believe that, by learning to apell the words: cat, mat, and 

«•« ;!!'. J + I * President of the United States. Since until now mankind 

were yet infants, history had to deceive them with illusions into their training 
^nV<^ "rioua and difficult taeasof life. And thus it came to pass that until now 
mankind were motivated by Utopias and illusions. Two thousand y^ara ago the back- 



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ward ra&s. were lured by the Utopia tliat the kingdom of heaven was at hand. Two ' 
thousand years later, the working masses were lured by the utopia that the kingdom 
of socialism -was at hand. And bo it was in all cases. Mankind never realized their 
aims. Judaism, Christianity, Communism, and all other great, aims were not realized* 
yet history realized its aim; mankind passed from the State of beast and became ' 
^hY'i"! f viliz ! d ' In due tinle history will also $ftllzo the sublime aim, wh- 
ich is the destiny of mankindj and then what turned out to be utopias.and illus- 
lons^will reveal themselves fo be the intention of history* mankind will realize 
all their Utopias and dreams. Little five-year old Johnny is made to believe that. 
of t^??J%+ P + e11 t $!^ 0rda <»* >>***> and the like. ^ will become the- Preside^ 

"?f+« ft ^V ThlS 1S a Ut 4 ia *** an iHtt«Km- ™. "Hi a while,-and *\ 

little Johnny will become Presidentjof the United States, and ho will become such ? 
just because he learned to spell the words cat, mat, and the like. 

-L T The ^.ff ao ? ther as P cct of th * solution. Infants cannot adequately serve an 
aim. In addition to serving an aim, they must also serve some personal petty our - 
poses. Since until now mankind were yet infants, they could not adequately serve 
any aim While serving some aim, they also served some personal petty aims. In most 
cases, the aim was only an excuse and a mask to cover up some personal 'aim. In 
other words, while apparently serving a noble aim, they in fact served their pass- 
ions, ambitions and personal interests. The man who served an aim regardless of — . 
w"^ interests, passions and ambitions, were wry few. How, we saw that an ait* 
justifies the means used to serve the aim; but an aija cannot justify the means f v 
which are used to serve other purposes. For instance, take the Russian revolution- ' 
aries. ,e know that they were idealists of a high orderj we know that they worked, 
struggled, suffered and even died for the sake of their noble aim. Yet this is not 
the whole stcrv. fthen we look deeper into the natter, we find that most, if not all* ' 
revolutionaries were motivated by passions, jealousies, vanities, ambitions, and . 
-he like, all of which had nothing tfo do with the aim. We must bear this in mind; 
Fork , struggle Jguffering, death and martyrdom are not yet guarantees that the id- 
ealists served J l|r aim adequately. There was never an aim - no matter how crim- 
inal, immoral a^^human - for the sake of which men did not work, struggle, su- 

for r t^«l!" ^ + V he "*?V f™ they n0t workin *> ^^ggling, suffering and dying 
far tne sake of their criminal aim? Hence we see this paradox; Jews, Christians, 
Coimunists, and other idealists, while ready to die for their ideal, will yet stoop ! 
to tne lowest level of immorality to serve their own personal interests. For in- 
stance in the struggle between the Russian revolutionaries, was it always a stru- 
ggle motivated by the noble aim? Yes, *e are all noble idealists, provided we arc 
on the top; but, if others are on the top, we will disregard the idea. Hence in 
!™"?2 erl ^ the ,? uefl * xcmi do^*^i^a^mjustify the means, we must eliminate from 
consideration all acts and means usedTo serve, not the aim itself, but some per- 
sonal passion, ambition and vanity. YThen we do this, we shall then see the follow- 

t~\* a « V!* 6Xtent that mSn truly and adequately eerved an aim, the aim was 
realized. Secondly, no aim thus far was fully realized, because thus far men did 
not serve any aim truly and adequately. 

12- The conclusion is this. First, in all' cases the aim must be noble, moral, 

^%^r d ldea1 ;, ***" SUCh i3 the ailB ' ±l is no lon S er a q^stion of the 
means, for this aim will justify the means necessary to realize the aim. Secondly, 
the means used must be necessary to realize the aim, and no more of the means 
*h!ii I* a8 " act H u y ™cessary. Thirdly, in serving any aim, nothing else 

shall be served; all personal considerations, aims, ambitions and purposes must 
be absolutely and completely eliminated and disregarded. And for this purpose we 
reed no outside guidance: each one knows fully and adequately whether he serves the 
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^irdCwe^ S^f^^ IbTiBTr* 1! ° ™ "» b8 daoai " d in this 
free to choosers 3£ anl the/tre not * EH E * 2*5 ft "" ^ enta ' *»«? are »rt 
»«* by history, Kanfcind ca^Hiee above ^J^" *"»*«5«' all Vdetermi- 
arc still ..inkhte, -they win err and commit wrenae l«n ev ° luti< »" So long aemen 
charged against men. Since it ie KJ deWned bv'hfl 6V6 " thi " is not to fc « 
ones before history all ere equally auiltv »nH ^ 1 hifltorsr > we «"»">t blame any 
sinoe it is an determined by histoid tn*\Z 5" a f e aquall > r J«"tified. Again, 
, ite tart, epite f the ^aTtSS ?l?l£f there i^ Siatf T aChieTed *» ^"»" 
aro to regret, and there is nothinein th^ J,*.? ' "°* hin 8 of the past which we 
.what took plao. in Soviet Russia „Lno c es.a^n7? iCh <r U t are U fMtr ' «^^. 
leaders orrcd. thty did not eorve'thrfr ?h T and ^"ablc. The revolution^ 
tion ma not a failure, it aeeo^lieW t^ aic ^^y. V<* the Hu.sian r.voTu- 
complish by the revolution. agaTn"th B revo^r* ^"1 hiBtor * i"*"** to ae- 
hietory. For everything we get from exietenJf ^"l 1 """" we " not ^»y«l by 
exceptional privilege whichWat™ conferred on E*l3 *" a « ulVttlant - Fo ' tha 
Stalins, they had to pay an equivalent^ and ^J^l^V*. the Trotzkyeand the ' 
they had to pay an exceptional equlvajen? and th.%* 8 ^ ile ^ 1M "ceptlonal, 
sec that neither the death of the revolution.^, **"* •« l « i «l«* ™ death. Thus we ' 
lution itself was a tragedy. Death iT. .«2JT? ! '" nor the deat « •«' the rsvo- 
could be no Ufa. Unless a'eorn ? wheat .U mAV^' Wlthout daath t»srs 
*lon 6| but,. if it dl08 , it brinaeth f^v, ! * the e™ und <»> d die, it abideth 
revolutionary leaders will briTforth^vnt tt *" ,dance of f ™"- ™«> death ox the 
thousandfold S and the death of V.ZtllnJttlt'l? ^"^ a hund ™afold-, a 
revolutions. State capitalism and f^ciem are n^f™ !SJ bring f0rth »** other 
nnu revolution. What revolutionary workmate TjtJX"** ? S^ are »*>& e °* 
plieh ? . .hall ee, i„ the n9xt lecture on ?h! ca P itali "V nd f " ci ™ ""1 accom- 
Statee. i-eciure on the Universal Crisis and the United 

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